Familial Hypoalphalipoproteinemia in Premature Coronary Artery Disease

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Hypoalphalipoproteinemia (HA) is a common finding in patients with premature coronary artery disease. To characterize the common familial forms of HA, we studied 102 families of probands with premature coronary artery disease; 40 probands (39.2%) had HA. Of these, 25 had at least one first-degree relative affected with HA; 11 had familial hypertriglyceridemia with HA (FTgHA); 10 had familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH); and 4 had familial HA (FHA) with no other lipoprotein abnormalities. In the remaining 15 families, no lipoprotein abnormalities were observed in first-degree relatives. We measured apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, B, C-IH, and E levels as well as lipoprotein particle (Lp) levels of LpA-I (containing apoA-I only), LpA-I:A-II (containing both apoA-I and A-II), LpB:E, and LpB:C-III. Compared with a reference group of healthy men (n = 103) and women (n = 106), probands with familial forms of HA had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by selection criteria. Triglyceride levels were higher in FTgHA and FCH probands than in the reference group or FHA subjects. Despite selection of FTgHA and FCH by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, the latter was not significantly different between the three groups and the reference group. ApoA-I levels were decreased in FCH, FHA, and FTgHA probands, and LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II were lower in FHA and FTgHA probands. ApoB levels were significantly higher in all familial HA groups compared with the reference group, being highest in FCH individuals, but not significantly higher between FCH, FTgHA, or FHA probands. LpB:E levels were higher in the FCH and FTgHA groups than in the reference group. There were no significant differences between groups for apoE, apoC-III, and LpB:C-III. LDL particle size was smaller in all three forms of FHA, which, in combination with higher apoB levels, reflects an increased number of smaller, denser LDL particles. Affected children had, on average, higher apoB and LpB:E levels than nonaflected siblings. Our data suggest that common forms of FHA in subjects with coronary artery disease represent a spectrum of overlapping disorders characterized by an increase in apoB-containing lipoproteins, especially LpB:E particles, and smaller, denser LDL particles. When using appropriate ageand gender-adjusted cutpoints, approximately half the offspring (in young adulthood) appeared to be affected.

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