Oestrogen is mainly responsible for alterations in blood vessels and progesterone stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators. In females, during puberty, ovulation and pregnancy, there is an increase in the production of sex steroid hormones, which results in increased gingival inflammation, characterized by gingival enlargement, increased bleeding and crevicular fluid flow. This article presents a case of a patient who presented with a complaint of gingival swelling and spontaneous bleeding that persisted for more than two months. Her health history documented the recently diagnosed presence of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Clinical examination revealed enlarged painful gingival tissues, which bled when touched. After completion of Phase I therapy, the enlargement did not subside and a biopsy sample was taken. This was compared with another patient who had the same health condition but did not show any gingival enlargement. Testing of tissue samples for oestrogen and progesterone receptors showed the first patient to be positive for oestrogen receptors but negative for progesterone, whereas the control was negative for both. Positive oestrogen receptors suggest that polycystic ovarian syndrome has some effect on the periodontium. The dental consequences of this condition, highly prevalent among young females, are typically ignored. Further studies warrant establishment of a clinical association and future diagnosis.