Pigmented purpuric dermatosis (PPD) is characterized by petechial and pigmented macules on the lower limbs. The aetiology of PPD remains obscure. Some reports have suggested an association between PPD and hepatitis B or C infection. This prospective case-control study was designed to investigate the association of positive hepatitis B or C serology with PPD. A total of 60 PPD patients and 230 randomly selected controls were enrolled. Sera from all patients and controls were tested for liver function tests (LFT), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBS Ag), and hepatitis C virus antibody (HCV Ab). The prevalence of HBS Ag in patients with PPD and the controls was 3 per cent (5/60) and 4.3 per cent (10/230), respectively. The prevalence of HCV Ab was 1.7 per cent (1/60) and 1.3 per cent (3/230) among patients and controls, respectively. No statistically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of positive hepatitis B or C serology (P-values 0.73 and 0.58, respectively). No statistically significant difference in LFT was observed between the two groups. Therefore, the authors believe it is unlikely that HBV or HCV are directly involved in the pathogenesis of PPD.