Injury to the endolymphatic sac may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Ménière's disease, an inner ear disorder characterized by hearing loss, tinnitus and attacks of vertigo. Isoimmunization of 16 inbred Lewis rats with a crude endolymphatic sac extract and complete Freund's adjuvant induced hyperactivity of the endolymphatic sac. One group of rats was immunized by a single dose whereas a second group was immunized twice. Control animals were injected with Freund's adjuvant in saline only. Serum was collected from all rats by the end of the study and harvested autoantibodies were tested by immunohistochemistry. The endolymphatic sacs were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Endolymphatic sac stimulation was observed in all immunized rats. Based on detailed ultrastructural observations, the degree of reactivity seemed proportional to the number of injections and the extent of immunization. Moreover, the ribosome-rich cells seemed hyperactive with an extravagant content of intracellular components: numerous rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes, morphological signs of extensive endo- and exocytosis, vesicles of material with a density similar to the homogeneous substance of which many were observed to fuse with primary lysozymes. Basolateral foldings were numerous and in the subepithelial capillaries formation of multiple and apposing fenestrations were observed. No endolymphatic sac stimulation was observed in the control animals. Specific ribosome-rich cell alterations identical to those present in the endolymphatic sac of Ménière's disease were observed 21 days after the first immunization. The observations suggest that either an autoantigen or a trophic factor, capable of inducing a hyperactivity of the ribosome-rich cells and an imbalance of the homogeneous substance metabolism, exists in the endolymphatic sac of the rat.