Glyburide (GLB) is a widely used oral sulfonylurea for the treatment of gestational diabetes. The therapeutic use of GLB is often complicated by a substantial inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug in human populations, which might be caused by inter-individual variations in factors such as GLB metabolism. Therefore, there has been a continued interest in identifying human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms that play a major role in the metabolism of GLB. However, contrasting data are available in the present literature in this regard. The present study systematically investigated the contributions of various human CYP isoforms (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19) to in vitro metabolism of GLB. GLB depletion and metabolite formation in human liver microsomes were most significantly inhibited by the CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole compared with the inhibitors of other CYP isoforms. Furthermore, multiple correlation analysis between GLB depletion and individual CYP activities was performed, demonstrating a significant correlation between GLB depletion and the CYP3A probe activity in 16 individual human liver microsomal preparations, but not between GLB depletion and the CYP2C19, CYP2C8 or CYP2C9 probe activity. By using recombinant supersomes overexpressing individual human CYP isoforms, it was found that GLB could be depleted by all the enzymes tested; however, the intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 for GLB depletion was 4-17 times greater than that of other CYP isoforms. These results confirm that human CYP3A4 is the major enzyme involved in the in vitro metabolism of GLB. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.