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The expressions of E2F1 and retinoblastoma protein (pRB) were analyzed in 165 lymph node-positive breast cancers. All patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC). E2F1 was expressed in 43.6% and pRB was expressed in 46.1%. E2F1 expression was significantly increased in pRB-expressing tumors and was associated with an S-phase fraction. By univariate survival analyses, E2F1 expression and ER were identified as significant prognostic factors for disease recurrence and patient survival. E2F1 was the only significant prognostic factor of patient outcome after FAC chemotherapy by multivariate analysis.