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Breast cancer in men is rare and its etiology is multifactorial. Androgens may promote the development of breast carcinoma in men though data on the subject is scarce. We observed 45 men with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (aged 18-57) who received 250 mg of testosterone esters (Omnadren 250, Jelfa, Poland) every 3-4 weeks for 5-26 years. Seventeen of them were treated for more than 10 years. During the observation period breast cancer was diagnosed in 2 subjects (11% of the followed men). In one case it occurred after 11 years and in the other after 15 years of the therapy. We point to a possible association between long-term androgen replacement and a risk of breast cancer in men.