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The aim of this study was to determine the indications, accuracy and complications of vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) performed using ultrasonographic (US) guidance for non-palpable lesions.This was a prospective study in which results from consecutive US-guided VABB performed between January 1999 and April 2003 were subsequently compared to those from excisional biopsy or to long-term follow-up imaging.Four hundred and six lesions were submitted to VABB procedures. Out of those, 78.9% were benign, 18.8% were malignant, 1.7% was lobular neoplasia, and 0.4% was atypical duct hyperplasia. Underestimation occurred in 2.6% of the cases and false negative results in 0.6%. Sensitivity to VABB was 97%, specificity went up to 100%, negative predictive value was 99%, positive predictive value was 100%, and accuracy was 99%. Complications occurred in 9% of the patients.US-guided VABB is an accurate and safe procedure. The main indication is the non-palpable suspicious breast lesions (category 4). This new technique could be a good alternative for percutaneous and surgery biopsy.