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The CYP1B1 gene is a polymorphic member of the P450 gene family and is considered to be a candidate gene for cancers of various types.We inquired whether four SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene, alone or in combination, might be associated with breast cancer risk in Poland.We genotyped 2017 cases of breast cancer and 876 controls, for four SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene. Genotype and haplotype frequencies were compared in cases and controls.In combinations of the R48G, A119S and L432V SNPs, four of the eight CYP1B1 haplotypes were more common in controls than in cases and each of these appeared to have a significant protective effect. A large reduction in risk was observed for women who were homozygous for one of these four haplotypes (OR = 0.2; 95%; CI = 0.05–0.5; P = 0.001) compared to women who were homozygous for the most common haplotype. In contrast, women who were homozygous for the GTC haplotype were at increased risk (OR = 1.5; 95%; CI = 1.0–2.1; P = 0.03) compared to women with the most common haplotype.The CYP1B1 gene appears to influence breast cancer susceptibility in Poland.