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Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. To date, many articles have evaluated the association between Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17) T-34C polymorphism and breast cancer risk. However, the results remain inconclusive. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the association, a meta-analysis was performed in this study. By searching Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, CNKI, and SinoMed databases, 43 studies including 26,008 cases and 32,806 controls were collected for CYP17 T-34C polymorphism. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of association between CYP17 T-34C polymorphism and breast cancer risk. The pooled ORs were performed for codominant model, dominant model, and recessive model, respectively. Overall, no significant associations between CYP17 T-34C polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility were found for TT versus CC (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.89-1.05), TC versus CC (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), TT + TC versus CC (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.89-1.05) and TT versus TC + CC (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.93-1.03). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, menopausal status, and sources of controls, significant associations were still not detected in all genetic models. In conclusion, this meta-analysis strongly suggests that CYP17 T-34C polymorphism is not associated with breast cancer risk.