Electron microscopy and stereomorphometric analysis of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes in the right atrium of NISAG rats revealed signs of activation of biosynthetic processes: increased relative volume of euchromatin (compared to Wistar rats), high density of nuclear pores, presence of large numerous Golgi complexes, and well-developed endoplasmic reticulum. The numerical density of secretory granules in the cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes in NISAG rats significantly surpassed that in Wistar rats. However, these granules in NISAG rats were smaller than in Wistar rats. The presence of numerous secretory granules and increased ratio of forming and dissolving structures suggest that this pool is characterized by high turnover rate, i.e., intensive synthesis and rapid elimination (consumption) of natriuretic peptide. Hypertrophy and hyperactivity of endocrine function in atrial cardiomyocytes of NISAG rats can be considered as a compensatory reaction to hypertension.