We studied the effects of acute stress and exogenous melatonin in various doses on the intensity of lipid peroxidation in emotiogenic structures of the brain and liver of rats with different activity in the open field. Stress had no effect on the content of malonic dialdehyde in the hypothalamus, sensorimotor cortex, and liver of active and passive rats receiving physiological saline. The influence of melatonin on malonic dialdehyde content depended on the dose of this substance. The amount of malonic dialdehyde in brain structures (active and passive rats) and liver (active rats) increased after administration of exogenous melatonin in doses of 0.5 and 2 mg/kg, but decreased after treatment with the hormone in a dose of 1 mg/kg. Melatonin in various doses decreased malonic dialdehyde content in the liver of passive rats. The effects of melatonin are partly related to modulation of lipid peroxidation in central and peripheral tissues of the organism.