Erroneous behavior is usually, although not always, inhibited following a negative outcome (e.g., a penalty), although this adjusting behavior is highly varied. Here we aimed to identify brain regions associated with successful behavioral adjustment to negative feedback, and the intrinsic functional connectivity associated with individual variability in such adjustments, using combined task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional MRI data were obtained from 28 young adults performing a visuomotor associative learning task, wherein participants learned by trial and error to make one of four key responses to each of 24 English letters. All preceding error response trials were sorted post hoc, based on whether the error response was repeated (Error-Repeated) or not (Error-Changed) for the subsequent trial with the same stimulus, and the rate of error adjustment for each individual was computed as the number of Error-Changed trials divided by all error trials. We identified two brain regions, the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whose brain response was significantly greater for Error-Changed than Error-Repeated trials. Stronger anti-correlation between the right dACC seed and right amygdala and between the DLPFC seed and the paracentral gyrus and inferior temporal region extending to the hippocampus was associated with better adjustment ability. These results suggest that the stronger anticorrelated relationship between the error monitoring region and emotional processing and that between the executive control region with those involved in memory or default mode network reflect individual variability in error adjustment.