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Serotonin 5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) are distributed in hippocampal CA1 and play a pivotal role in cognitive function. Activation of 5-HT1BRs regulates synaptic plasticity at the excitatory synapses in the hippocampus. However, the role and its underlying mechanism of 5-HT1BR activation-mediated glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in spatial memory are not fully understood. In this study, spatial memory of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was assessed in a Morris water maze after bilateral dorsal hippocampal CA1 infusion of the 5-HT1BR antagonist GR55562 (25 μg/μL) or agonist CP93129 (25 μg/μL). GR55562 did not affect the spatial memory acquisition but significantly increased the target quadrant preference during the memory consolidation probe performed 14 d after the training session, while CP93129 impaired the memory consolidation process. Moreover, GR55562 significantly increased, while CP93129 significantly decreased, the density of dendritic spines on the distal apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, western blot experiments indicated that GR55562 significantly increased, but CP93129 significantly reduced, the expression of Kalirin-7 (Kal-7), PSD95, and GluA2/3 subunits of AMPA receptors. Our results suggest that Kal-7 and Kal-7-mediatedalteration of AMPA receptor subtype expression may play crucial roles in the impact of hippocampal CA1 5-HT1BR activation on spatial memory consolidation.Infusion of 5-HT1B receptor antagonist GR55562 into hippocampal CA1 did not affect spatial memory acquisition.Infusion of GR55562 into hippocampal CA1 enhanced spatial memory consolidation.Infusion of GR55562 into hippocampal CA1 increased, but the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP93129 reduced, the spine density on the distal apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons and Kalirin-7 expression.Infusion of GR55562 into hippocampal CA1 increased, but CP93129 reduced, the expression of GluA2/3 subunits of AMPA receptors.