THE TERRESTRIAL BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE RANID ROCK FROG NANNOPHRYS CEYLONENSIS

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Abstract

Summary

Nannophrys ceylonensis (Ranidae) is a terrestrial breeding anuran, found on wet vertical or near-vertical rock surfaces. Non-breeding adult males and females take refuge in separate crevices in the rock surfaces during the day and emerge at night to forage. Males can be polygynous; mating takes place inside crevices. Fathers exhibit paternal care for multiple clutches of eggs and guard eggs from predators. Paternal care of this species is obligatory; hatching success decreases without it. Females do not contribute to parental care. Males show nest site fidelity and defend territories against conspecifics. A scarcity of suitable nest sites may limit reproductive success in N. ceylonensis. Larvae hatch at Gosner stages 21-22 and leave their nests at stages 24-25 to live as truly terrestrial tadpoles, foraging on the rock surfaces near their natal nests.

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