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This article introduces the trends in deinstitutionalization, the limitations of previous research, and the design and research questions of the Central State Hospital (CSH) closing studies. Previously, the central engine of deinstitutionalization has been the downsizing, and not the closing, of facilities to decrease available beds. Only 14 state hospitals closed between 1970 and 1990. However, since 1990, 40 hospitals have closed. Moreover, beginning in 1993, for the first time since deinstitutionalization began, funding for state psychiatric facilities was less than for community-based services. Previous research on both the downsizing and closing of hospitals has focused predominantly on relatively short-term clinical and social outcomes of patients. The current study is a multi-disciplinary, longitudinal, multiple-stakeholder study of the closing of a state-run, long-term care facility in Indiana. The articles that follow focus on the clinical, psychological, social, and attitudinal outcomes for patients, workers, families, and the public following the closing of CSH.