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This study evaluated the relation of particular aspects of pain-related anxiety to characteristics of chronic pain distress in a sample of 76 individuals with low-back pain. Consistent with contemporary cognitive–behavioral models of chronic pain, the cognitive dimension of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS; McCracken, Zayfert, and Gross, 1992, Pain 50: 67–73) was uniquely predictive of cognitive-affective aspects of chronic pain, including affective distress, perceived lack of control, and pain severity. In contrast, the escape and avoidance dimension of the PASS was more predictive of behavioral interference in life activities. Overall, the findings are discussed within the context of identifying particular pain-related anxiety mechanisms contributing to differential aspects of pain-related distress and clinical impairment.