d-Amphetamine Conditioned Place Preference in Developing Mice: Relations With Changes in Activity and Stereotypies

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Conditioned place preference (CPP) with both visual and tactile cues, hyperactivity, and stereotypies produced by d-amphetamine (1–10 mg/kg ip, single dose) were studied in CD-1 mice at 2, 3, and 4 weeks from birth. CPP was shown from the youngest age onward in female mice and from 3 weeks in male mice. Hyperactivity was much more pronounced in postweanlings (3 and 4 weeks) than in preweanlings. Stereotypies (at 3.3 and 10 mg/kg) occurred from the youngest age and tended to peak at 3 weeks. Stereotypies may indicate a sickness experience or “poor welfare” (G. J. Mason, 1991; A. Wall, R. E. Hinson, E. Schmidt, C. Johnston, & A. Streather, 1990) due to an aversive component of amphetamine's action. Therefore, the delayed development of fully fledged amphetamine CPP, relative to cocaine CPP (G. Laviola, G. Dell'Omo, E. Alleva, & G. Bignami, 1992), may be due to an age-dependent diminution of the positive hedonic value of the former drug by negative effects that are minimal or absent in the case of the latter drug.

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