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A 2-response operant taste discrimination procedure, modified to assess taste sensitivity in water-restricted C57BL/6J mice, revealed a detection threshold of 0.065 M sodium chloride. Amiloride increased the threshold by ∼1 log10 unit. These results are the first to demonstrate the necessity of the amiloride-sensitive taste transduction pathway in the normal detection of low concentrations of sodium chloride in mice and provide a functional context in which to evaluate electrophysiological findings. Two-bottle preference tests performed with these mice and additional naive mice revealed only marginal, if any, effects of amiloride on salt intake behavior, highlighting the importance of considering the relative attributes and limitations of different behavioral assays of taste function.