DN-2327 (pazinaclone) is a new non-benzodiazepine compound which has high affinity for benzodiazepine receptors. The acute behavioral effects and abuse liability of DN-2327 (2, 4 and 8 mg) were compared to those of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic aiprazolam (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg) in ten normal adult male volunteers using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, outpatient design. For both drugs, the peak effect occurred approximately 1.5 h after drug administration. Both drugs also produced comparable dose-related effects on several measures related to sedation, as well as on subject- and observer rated strength of drug effect. Both alprazolaman and DN-2327 produced dose-related impairments on various performance measures; on some tasks, the impairment was greater for DN-2327. In contrast, there were no differences between DN-2327 and alprazolam on observer-rated measures. Although no measures of drug-taking were made in this study, to the extent that self-reported effects predict reinforcing effects. the data suggest little liability for abuse of these two compounds in the subject population. Ratings of ‘drug liking’ and ‘willing to take the drug again’ were not increased following aiprazolam. Although DN-2327 did not increase ratings of ‘willing to take the drug again’. DN-2327 did produce small but significant increases on ratings of ‘drug liking’. Overall, these results suggest that the non-benzodiazepine DN- 2327 has a pharmacological profile that is similar to that of benzodiazepines.