Reaction time (RT) and error rate that depend on stimulus duration were measured in a luminance-discrimination reaction time task. Two patches of light with different luminance were presented to participants for ‘short' (150 ms) or ‘long' (1 s) period on each trial. When the stimulus duration was ‘short', the participants responded more rapidly with poorer discrimination performance than they did in the longer duration. The results suggested that different sensory responses in the visual cortices were responsible for the dependence of response speed and accuracy on the stimulus duration during the luminance-discrimination reaction time task. It was shown that the simple winner-take-all-type neural network model receiving transient and sustained stimulus information from the primary visual cortex successfully reproduced RT distributions for correct responses and error rates. Moreover, temporal spike sequences obtained from the model network closely resembled to the neural activity in the monkey prefrontal or parietal area during other visual decision tasks such as motion discrimination and oddball detection tasks.