Male Drosophila melanogaster from lines artifically selected to have divergent life histories were tested to determine if they differed in their effects on female reproductive behavior. During the first 5 days after mating, males from short-generation populations caused females to lay eggs at a faster rate than did males from long-generation populations. This faster oviposition rate resulted in greater numbers of adult progeny produced by short-generation males. During the period 6-21 days after mating, long-generation males fathered more adult progeny. Females that were first mated to short-generation males were more likely to remate than were females first mated to long-generation males. Rematings were interrupted in order to prevent transfer of second-male accessory fluid and sperm. Females that were first mated to long-generation males produced more progeny after interrupted matings than did females that were first mated to short-generation males.