In the current study, we searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) measured as a decrease in the intake of a saccharin conditioned stimulus followed by an i.p. injection of 0.15 M LiCl (lithium chloride) (2 ml/100 g body weight). A genome scanning for QTL associated with CTA was performed in the HXB/BXH sets of recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from the Brown Norway (BN-Lx) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). The BN-Lx progenitor showed a significantly stronger CTA (8.3 ± 2.8%) than the SHR progenitor (27.8 ± 3.3%, p < .0001). The distribution of CTA values among RI strains was continuous, suggesting a polygenic mode of inheritance. Genome scanning of RI strains with more than 700 gene markers revealed a significant association of CTA with the D2Cebr11s4 marker on chromosome 2 (LRS = 22.7) and with the D4Cebrp149s8 marker on chromosome 4 (LRS = 23.4). The chromosome 2 putative QTL was confirmed by detecting a significant difference in CTA between the SHR progenitor (27.8 ± 3.3%) and the SHR-2 (SHR.BN-D2Rat171/D2Arb24) congenic strain (13.1 ± 4.4%, p < .01) that are genetically identical except for a segment of chromosome 2 that was transferred onto the genetic background of the SHR from the BN strain.