Neuropsychological research has permitted defining specific cognitive profiles among individuals with mental retardation (MR) of different etiology. Namely, the cognitive profile of people with Down syndrome (DS) is often reported to be characterized by a deficit in language abilities that usually exceed impairments in visual-spatial capacities. However, recent studies have demonstrated a more complex neuropsychological profile in this population, with atypical development in the cognitive and in the linguistic domain. This paper is dedicated to reviewing literature regarding motor, linguistic and cognitive abilities in DS. Our aim is to present evidences supporting the hypothesis that individuals with these syndrome exhibit a peculiar motor development and neuropsychological profile with some abilities more preserved and others more impaired. This finding may have theoretical and practical implications. In fact, a better definition of the cognitive pattern in DS may contribute to understand the nature of MR in general and, also, it may suggests individualized rehabilitation treatment protocols.