Despite the urgency of the problem of prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative processes underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other severe disorders of the central nervous system, therapeutic and prophylactic potential of drugs is yet insufficient. Numerous adverse effects of the drugs, which might improve cognitive function in patients with AD substantiate serious consideration of measures enhancing adaptive potential and mobilizing self-defense of the body. It is clear now that endogenous defense systems of the brain can limit progression of AD long after the onset of the disease. The measures mobilizing the self-defense include administration of natural adaptogens and various types of adaptation, such as adaptation to dietary restrictions, promotion of physical and mental activity, and adaptation to hypoxia. This review presents data supporting a hypothesis that non-drug activation of self-defense of the body can prevent cognitive decline induced by neurodegenerative processes in the brain by targeting key points of AD pathogenesis.