Disposable pipette extraction for the simultaneous determination of biperiden and three antipsychotic drugs in human urine by GC–nitrogen phosphorus detection

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Disposable pipette extraction with reversed-phase sorbent is proposed for the fast and simple GC determination of the antipsychotic drugs chlorpromazine, olanzapine, clozapine and biperiden – an anticholinergic drug – in human urine. The method was validated and successfully applied to postmortem urine samples. The analytical run was 11 min and lidocaine was used as the internal standard.


The developed method showed good linearity, over the range of 0.34 to 5 ng/µl, for all compounds. The within-day and between-day precision and accuracy assays revealed values ≤15%, while the recoveries ranged from 85 to 120%. LOD and LOQ ranged from 0.28 to 0.42 ng/µl and from 0.85 to 3.58 ng/µl, respectively.


The developed method is a user-friendly technique, which is simple and fast.

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