Overview of tissue kallikrein and kallikrein-related peptidases in breast cancer

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


The kallikrein family comprises tissue kallikrein and 14 kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) recognized as a subgroup of secreted trypsin- or chymotrypsin-like serine proteases. KLKs are expressed in many cellular types where they regulate important physiological activities such as semen liquefaction, immune response, neural development, blood pressure, skin desquamation and tooth enamel formation. Tissue kallikrein, the oldest member and kinin-releasing enzyme, and KLK3/PSA, a tumor biomarker for prostate cancer are the most prominent components of the family. Additionally, other KLKs have shown an abnormal expression in neoplasia, particularly in breast cancer. Thus, increased levels of some KLKs may increase extracellular matrix degradation, invasion and metastasis; other KLKs modulate cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. On the contrary, KLKs can also inhibit angiogenesis and produce tumor suppression. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how KLKs are regulated in tumor microenvironment by molecules present at the site, namely cytokines, inflammatory mediators and growth factors. Little is known about the signaling pathways that control expression/secretion of KLKs in breast cancer, and further how activation of PAR receptors may contribute to functional activity in neoplasia. A better understanding of these molecular events will allow us to consider KLKs as relevant therapeutic targets for breast cancer.

    loading  Loading Related Articles