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Five hundred forty-three blood samples from 15 populations of the four genera of callitrichin primates were studied electrophoretically. Polymorphism and genetic distances were estimated for 20 loci, 13 of which were polymorphic. The lion tamarin (Leontopithecus) studied here exhibited the least variability for these loci, while the monospecific Cebuella showed the most. The genetic distances observed between Callithrix and Cebuella genera support previous evidence indicating a close taxonomic relationship between them. Genetic distance values obtained in this study also support the synonimization of the kuhli form with Callithrix jacchus penicillata.