Influence of p53 and p21WAF1 expression on sensitivity of cancer cells to cladribine


    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid

Abstract

The present study was performed to gain insight into the role of p53 and p21WAF1 on the cytotoxicity of the purine analogue cladribine (2-CdA) on cancer cells. Drug sensitivity, cell cycle distribution and drug-induced cell death were compared in three lines derived from the colorectal carcinoma HCT116: the p53+/+ cell line containing wild-type p53 and the p53-/- and p21WAF1-/- lines, in which both alleles of p53 or p21WAF1 were deleted by homologous recombination, respectively. p53-/- and p21WAF1-/- cells were significantly more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of 2-CdA than the p53+/+ cells. p53+/+ cells and p21WAF1-/-, but not p53-/- cells, displayed wt-p53 protein accumulation and arrested in S-phase after exposure to 2-CdA. mRNA analysis of the transporter hENT1 and of enzymes involved in drug metabolism did not show alterations which might explain a drug-resistant phenotype in the p53-/- or p21WAF1-/- cells. Exposure of p53+/+ cells to 2-CdA resulted in expression of p21WAF1 mRNA and protein, enhanced expression of uncleaved PARP-1, and a higher degree both of apoptosis and necrosis than in p53-/- and p21WAF1-/- cells exposed to 2-CdA. Addition of the specific PARP-1 inhibitor 3-AB to 2-CdA-treated cells rendered p53+/+ cells resistant to this drug. Bax levels were reduced in the p53-/- while they increased in the p53+/+ line and remained stable in the p21WAF1-/- cells. We conclude that p53 and p21WAF1 status of cancer cells influences their sensitivity to 2-CdA cytotoxicity. This may involve alterations in the apoptotic cascade as well as in PARP-1-dependent cell death.

    loading  Loading Related Articles