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Previous studies including ours have demonstrated that DNA repair is one of the important targets of fludarabine. The aim of this study is to clarify a mechanistic interaction of carboplatin and F-ara-A, from the perspective of F-ara-A-mediated inhibition of DNA repair initiated by carboplatin. Using human quiescent lymphocytes, we focused on DNA repair, since these cells provide a model of dormant cells. To evaluate the carboplatin-induced DNA incision and its repair, we used the alkaline comet assay. When lymphocytes were incubated with carboplatin, a dose-dependent increase in the tail-moment was observed. Then, tail-moment decreased in proportion to the incubation period in fresh media and recovered to the control level at 4 h. DNA rejoining was completely inhibited by F-ara-A at 10 μM through 0 to 6 h after washing out of these drugs and this F-ara-A-induced inhibition was concentration-dependent. Cellular damage after drug exposure was evaluated with the induction of apoptosis as well as cytotoxic effect. Exposure to carboplatin alone did not induce any apparent cellular damage in quiescent lymphocytes. In contrast, a more than additive induction of apoptosis as well as an enhancement of cytotoxic action was observed in cells treated with a combination of carboplatin and F-ara-A. In the CEM cell line, there was no enhancement of the cytotoxic action of these drugs, despite the clear demonstration of an inhibitory effect on DNA repair. These results indicate that chemotherapy with carboplatin opened a new target for F-ara-A by initiating DNA repair in quiescent cells.