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The primary objective of the current study was to investigate possible relationships between calyculin A (CA)-mediated potentiation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and inhibition of store-operated uptake of Ca2+ by chemoattractant-activated human neutrophils. Treatment of neutrophils with 100 nM CA, but not at lower concentrations (12.5–50 nM), prior to the addition of the N-formylated chemotactic tripeptide, N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (FMLP) (1 μM), both potentiated and prolonged the activity of NADPH oxidase which was accompanied by exaggerated membrane depolarisation, delayed and attenuated membrane repolarisation, and inhibition of store-operated Ca2+ influx. Inclusion of diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI, 10 μM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, antagonised the effects of CA on NADPH oxidase activity and the membrane repolarisation responses of FMLP-activated neutrophils, but failed to restore store-operated influx of Ca2+. Similarly, CA also inhibited store-operated influx of Ca2+ into FMLP-activated neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease, a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterised by the absence of a functional NADPH oxidase. CA also inhibited the store-operated influx of Ca2+ into control neutrophils treated with 1 μM thapsigargin, a selective inhibitor of the endomembrane Ca2+-ATPase, which does not activate NADPH oxidase. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that augmentation of NADPH oxidase activity is not primarily involved in CA-mediated inhibition of the store-operated influx of Ca2+ into activated human neutrophils.