Alterations of insulin secretion following long-term manipulation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels by diazoxide and nateglinide

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Previous studies have shown that prolonged exposure to drugs, which act via blocking KATP channels, can desensitize the insulinotropic effects of drugs and nutrients acting via KATP channels. In this study, effects of prolonged exposure to diazoxide, a KATP channel opener, on beta cell function were examined using clonal BRIN-BD11 cells. The findings were compared to the long-term effects of KATP channel blockers nateglinide and tolbutamide. Following 18 h exposure to 200 μM diazoxide, the amounts of insulin secreted in response to glucose, amino acids and insulinotropic drugs were increased. Secretory responsiveness to a variety of agents acting via KATP channels was retained following prolonged diazoxide exposure. In contrast, 18 h exposure to 100 μM nateglinide significantly attenuated the insulin secretory responses to tolbutamide, nateglinide and BTS 67 582. Glucose- and l-alanine-stimulated insulin release were unaffected by prolonged nateglinide exposure, however responsiveness to l-leucine and l-arginine was diminished. Prolonged exposure to nateglinide had no effect on forskolin- and PMA-stimulated insulin release, and the overall pattern of desensitization was similar to that induced by 100 μM tolbutamide. We conclude that in contrast to chronic long-term KATP channel blockade, long-term diazoxide treatment is not harmful to KATP channel mediated insulin secretion and may have beneficial protective effects on beta cell function.

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