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We investigated the affinity of putative endocannabinoids (2-arachidonylglycerol, 2-AG; noladin ether, virodhamine) for the human neocortical CB1 receptor. Functional activity of these compounds (including anandamide, AEA) was determined by examining basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation. Assays were performed with synaptosomes, prepared from fresh human neocortical tissue. Receptor affinity was assessed from competition binding experiments with the CB1/2 agonist [3H]-CP55.940 in absence or presence of a protease inhibitor to assess enzymatic stability. Noladin ether and virodhamine inhibited [3H]-CP55.940 binding (Ki: 98, 1740 nM, respectively). Protease inhibition decreased the Ki value of virodhamine (Ki: 912 nM), but left that of noladin ether unchanged. 2-AG almost lacked affinity (Ki > 10 μM). Basal cAMP formation was unaffected by AEA and noladin ether, but strongly enhanced by 2-AG and virodhamine. Forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation was inhibited by AEA and noladin ether (IC50: 69, 427 nM, respectively) to the same extent as by CP55.940 (Imax each ˜30%). Inhibitions by AEA or noladin ether were blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. Virodhamine increased forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation, also in presence of AM251, by ˜20%. 2-AG had no effect; in presence of AM251, however, 10 μM 2-AG stimulated cAMP formation by ˜15%. Our results suggest, that AEA and noladin ether are full CB1 receptor agonists in human neocortex, whereas virodhamine may act as a CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist. Particularly the (patho)physiological role of 2-AG should be further investigated, since its CB1 receptor affinity and agonist activity especially in humans might be lower than generally assumed.