Long term environmental tobacco smoke activates nuclear transcription factor-kappa B, activator protein-1, and stress responsive kinases in mouse brain

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Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a key mediator of several diseases. Tobacco smoke contains a mixture of over 4700 chemical components many of which are toxic and have been implicated in the etiology of oxidative stress related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Parkinson's disease, asthma, cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism of action of cigarette smoke in the onset of these diseases is still largely unknown. Previous studies have revealed that the free radicals generated by cigarette smoke may contribute to many of these chronic health problems and this study sought to address the role of environmental tobacco smoke in oxidative stress related damage in different regions of the mouse brain. In this study, male mice were exposed for 7 h/day, 7 days/week, for 6 months. Our results show that tobacco smoke led to increased generation of reactive oxygen species with an increase in NF-κB activation. Gel shift analysis also revealed the elevated level of the oxidative stress sensitive proinflammatory nuclear transcription factor-kappa B and activator protein-1 in different regions of the brain of cigarette smoke exposed mice. Tobacco smoke led to activation of COX-2 in all the regions of the brain. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase were also observed in various regions of brain of ETS exposed mice. Overall our results indicate that exposure to long-term cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress leading to activation of stress induced kinases and activation of proinflammatory transcription factors.

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