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Signal transduction is a dynamic field in which established pathways evolve and new pathways emerge. The purpose of this commentary is to highlight new paradigms of signal transduction that have developed over the past few years. This discussion proposes a third member of the generic models of membrane receptors in addition to the 7-transmembrane pass receptor and the enzyme-linked receptor: the non-enzymatic nucleating receptor. Also discussed are the new paradigms of signal transduction by proteolysis which includes signaling by Notch, signaling through the Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, signaling through histidine phosphorylation, and reactive oxygen species in signal transduction.