The role of esterases in the metabolism of ciclesonide to desisobutyryl-ciclesonide in human tissue

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Ciclesonide (CIC) is an inhaled glucocorticosteroid. This study aimed to identify esterases involved in the metabolism of CIC to the active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC), and to measure hydrolysis rates in human liver, lung and plasma and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in vitro. Ciclesonide (5 μM and 500 μM) was incubated with microsomal or cytosolic fractions from liver, lung and plasma (n = 4 for each) and des-CIC formation was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with U.V. detection. The roles of carboxylesterase, cholinesterase and A-esterase in CIC hydrolysis were determined using a range of inhibitors. Inhibitor concentrations for liver and NHBE cells were 100 μM and 5 μM, respectively. Liver tissue had a higher activity for 500 μM CIC hydrolysis (microsomes: 25.4; cytosol: 62.9 nmol/g tissue/min) than peripheral lung (microsomes: 0.089; cytosol: 0.915 nmol/g tissue/min) or plasma (0.001 nmol/mL plasma/min), corresponding with high levels of carboxylesterase and cholinesterase in the liver compared with the lung. CIC (5 μM) was rapidly hydrolyzed by NHBE cells (˜30% conversion at 4 h), with almost complete conversion by 24 h. In liver and NHBE cells, major involvement of cytosolic carboxylesterases, with some contribution by cholinesterases, was indicated. The highest level of conversion was found in the liver, the site of inactivation of des-CIC through rapid oxidation by cytochrome P450. Carboxylesterases in bronchial epithelial cells probably contribute significantly to the conversion to des-CIC in the target organ, whereas low systemic levels of des-CIC are a result of the high metabolic clearance by the liver following CIC inhalation.

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