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Adenosine kinase (Ado kinase) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is structurally and biochemically unique from other known Ado kinases. This purine salvage enzyme catalyzes the first step in the conversion of the adenosine analog, 2-methyl-Ado (methyl-Ado), into a metabolite with antitubercular activity. Methyl-Ado has provided proof of concept that the purine salvage pathway from M. tuberculosis may be utilized for the development of antitubercular compounds with novel mechanisms of action. In order to utilize this enzyme, it is necessary to understand the topography of the active site to rationally design compounds that are more potent and selective substrates for Ado kinase. A previous structure–activity relationship identified modifications to the base moiety of adenosine (Ado) that result in substrate and inhibitor activity. In an extension of that work, 62 Ado analogs with modifications to the ribofuranosyl moiety, modifications to the base and ribofuranosyl moiety, or modifications to the glycosidic bond position have been analyzed as substrates and inhibitors of M. tuberculosis Ado kinase. A subset of these compounds was further analyzed in human Ado kinase for the sake of comparison. Although no modifications to the ribose moiety resulted in compounds as active as Ado, the best substrates identified were carbocyclic-Ado, 8-aza-carbocyclic-Ado, and 9-[α-l-lyxofuranosyl]-adenine with 38%, 4.3%, and 3.8% of the activity of Ado, respectively. The most potent inhibitor identified, 5′-amino-5′-deoxy-Ado, had a Ki = 0.8 μM and a competitive mode of inhibition. MIC studies demonstrated that poor substrates could still have potent antitubercular activity.