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With vildagliptin and sitagliptin on the market for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4, EC 18.104.22.168) research has entered a new era. Scientists aim to uncover the broader pharmacological profile of DPP4 inhibitors and search for therapeutic opportunities outside diabetes. During the pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of vildagliptin and sitagliptin, there has been a growing awareness of the presence of other DPP4-like peptidases in various cells and tissues. This fuelled the development of more inhibitors with defined selectivity for DPP2, 8 and 9 that were used to investigate the expression, distribution and regulation of these peptidases. In turn, these studies increased the insights in the role of DPP4 in the body's response to various insults.