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A novel marine compound xyloketal B protects against oxidized LDL-induced endothelial cell injury through attenuating ROS generation and promoting NO release.Xyloketal B is a novel marine compound with unique chemical structure isolated from mangrove fungus Xylaria sp. (no. 2508). Pretreatment with xyloketal B (0.63–40 μM) significantly improved oxLDL (150 μg/ml)-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) without either toxic or proliferative effects. Xyloketal B concentration-dependently attenuated oxLDL-induced ROS generation, peroxynitrite formation and decrease of Bcl-2 expression. In addition, xyloketal B significantly inhibited NADPH oxidase activity, as well as mRNA expression of gp91phox and p47phox. Furthermore, xyloketal B alone augmented the production of nitric oxide (NO). Collectively, these data indicate that xyloketal B protects against oxLDL-induced endothelial oxidative injury probably through inhibiting NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation, promoting NO production and restoring Bcl-2 expression, making it a promising compound for further evaluation in the treatment of atherosclerosis.