Pharmacology of AMD3465: A small molecule antagonist of the chemokine receptor CXCR4

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Graphical abstractAMD3465 is a selective antagonist of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 which exhibits biphasic pharmacokinetics and causes rapid leukocytosis, a surrogate for hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, when administered subcutaneously.CXCR4 is widely expressed in multiple cell types, and is involved in neonatal development, hematopoiesis, and lymphocyte trafficking and homing. Disruption of the CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction has been implicated in stem cell mobilization. Additionally CXCR4 is a co-receptor for HIV. Selective small molecule antagonists of CXCR4 therefore have therapeutic potential. AMD3465 is an N-pyridinylmethylene monocyclam CXCR4 antagonist which can block infection of T-tropic, CXCR4-using HIV. Using the CCRF-CEM T-cell line which expresses CXCR4 we have demonstrated that AMD3465 is an antagonist of SDF-1 ligand binding (Ki of 41.7 ± 1.2 nM), and inhibits SDF-1 mediated signaling as shown by inhibition of GTP binding, calcium flux, and inhibition of chemotaxis. AMD3465 is selective for CXCR4 and does not inhibit chemokine-stimulated calcium flux in cells expressing CXCR3, CCR1, CCR2b, CCR4, CCR5 or CCR7, nor does it inhibit binding of LTB4 to its receptor, BLT1. The pharmacokinetics of AMD3465 was investigated in mice and dogs. Absorption was rapid following subcutaneous administration. AMD3465 was cleared from dog plasma in a biphasic manner with a terminal half-life of 1.56–4.63 h. Comparison of exposure to the intravenous and subcutaneous doses indicated 100% bioavailability following subcutaneous administration. AMD3465 caused leukocytosis when administered subcutaneously in mice and dogs, with peak mobilization occurring between 0.5 and 1.5 h following subcutaneous dosing in mice and with maximum peak plasma concentration of compound preceding peak mobilization in dogs, indicating that AMD3465 has the potential to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells. These data demonstrate the therapeutic potential for the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3465.

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