(d-Ser2)Oxm[mPEG-PAL]: A novel chemically modified analogue of oxyntomodulin with antihyperglycaemic, insulinotropic and anorexigenic actions

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Graphical abstractOxyntomodulin (Oxm) is a hormone which has been shown to exhibit a range of potentially beneficial actions for alleviation of obesity-diabetes. However, exploitation of Oxm-based therapies has been severely restricted due to degradation by the enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase-IV (DPP-IV). Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the glucose-lowering, insulin-releasing and anorexigenic actions of chemically modified, enzyme-resistant analogues of Oxm. Oxm, (d-Ser2)Oxm and (d-Ser2)Oxm[mPEG-PAL], were incubated with DPP-IV to assess enzyme stability and pancreatic beta-cells to evaluate insulin secretion. cAMP production was assessed using glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon receptor transfected cells. In vivo effects of Oxm analogues on glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, food intake and bodyweight were examined in obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. (d-Ser2)Oxm[mPEG-PAL] displayed enhanced DPP-IV resistance compared to (d-Ser2)Oxm and Oxm. All peptides demonstrated similar in vitro cAMP and insulin-releasing actions, which was associated with dual action at GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. Acute administration of (d-Ser2)Oxm[mPEG-PAL] and (d-Ser2)Oxm reduced plasma glucose and food intake, whilst plasma insulin levels were elevated. Once-daily administration of (d-Ser2)Oxm[mPEG-PAL] for 14 days to ob/ob mice decreased food intake, bodyweight, plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin. Furthermore, daily (d-Ser2)Oxm[mPEG-PAL] improved glucose tolerance, increased glucose-mediated insulin secretion, pancreatic insulin content, adiponectin and decreased both visfatin and triglyceride levels. The ability of enzyme-resistant (d-Ser2)Oxm[mPEG-PAL] to improve glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, satiety, bodyweight and markers of fat metabolism suggests significant promise for Oxm-based therapies for obesity-diabetes.

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