CYP1D1, pseudogenized in human, is expressed and encodes a functional drug-metabolizing enzyme in cynomolgus monkey

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Cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 1 family consists of the CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C, and CYP1D subfamilies. In the human genome, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 are expressed and encode functional enzymes, whereas CYP1D1P (formerly known as CYP1A8P) is present as a pseudogene due to five nonsense mutations in the putative coding region. In this study, we identified CYP1D1 cDNA, highly identical (nearly 95%) to human CYP1D1P sequence, in cynomolgus monkey, a species frequently used in drug metabolism studies due to its evolutionary closeness to human. The amino acid sequence deduced from cynomolgus monkey CYP1D1 cDNA shared the high sequence identity (91%) with human CYP1D1P (postulated from the gene sequence), and the highest sequence identity (44–45%) with CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 among cynomolgus monkey P450s. CYP1D1 mRNA was most abundantly expressed in liver, followed by kidney, and jejunum. The hepatic expression level of CYP1D1 mRNA was comparable to that of CYP1A1 mRNA and much higher than that of CYP1A2 mRNA. CYP1D1 was barely detectable in immunoblots of cynomolgus monkey liver. Cynomolgus monkey CYP1D1 mRNA was induced in primary hepatocytes with omeprazole. Cynomolgus monkey CYP1D1 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation and caffeine 8-hydroxylation, which CYP1As also catalyze. Finally, no nonsense mutations, corresponding to those found in human CYP1D1P, were found in the 20 cynomolgus monkeys and 10 rhesus monkeys used in this study. These results suggest that CYP1D1 plays a role as a functional, drug-metabolizing enzyme in cynomolgus monkey liver.

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