Non-NAD-like PARP-1 inhibitors in prostate cancer treatment

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Graphical abstractTherapeutic approaches targeting the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis. PARP-1 inhibitors suppress AR transcriptional function and can therefore be effective against both androgen-dependent and -independent mechanisms of AR activation.In our previous studies of the molecular mechanisms of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1)-mediated transcriptional regulation we identified a novel class of PARP-1 inhibitors targeting the histone-dependent route of PARP-1 activation. Because histone-dependent activation is unique to PARP-1, non-NAD-like PARP-1 inhibitors have the potential to bypass the off-target effects of classical NAD-dependent PARP-1 inhibitors, such as olaparib, veliparib, and rucaparib. Furthermore, our recently published studies demonstrate that, compared to NAD-like PARP-1 inhibitors that are used clinically, the non-NAD-like PARP-1 inhibitor 5F02 exhibited superior antitumor activity in cell and animal models of human prostate cancer (PC). In this study, we further evaluated the antitumor activity of 5F02 and several of its novel analogues against PC cells. In contrast to NAD-like PARP-1 inhibitors, non-NAD-like PARP-1 inhibitors demonstrated efficacy against androgen-dependent and -independent routes of androgen receptor signaling activation. Our experiments reveal that methylation of the quaternary ammonium salt and the presence of esters were critical for the antitumor activity of 5F02 against PC cells. In addition, we examined the role of a related regulatory protein of PARP-1, called Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), in prostate carcinogenesis. Our study reveals that PARG expression is severely disrupted in PC cells, which is associated with decreased integrity and localization of Cajal bodies (CB). Overall, the results of our study strengthen the justification for using non-NAD-like PARP-1 inhibitors as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

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