Overview of the mammalian ADP-ribosyl-transferases clostridia toxin-like (ARTCs) family

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Graphical abstractMono-ADP-ribosylation is a reversible post-translational protein modification that modulates the function of proteins involved in different cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein transport, transcription, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis. In mammals, mono-ADP-ribosylation is mainly catalyzed by members of two different classes of enzymes: ARTCs and ARTDs. The human ARTC family is composed of four structurally related ecto-mono-ARTs, expressed at the cell surface or secreted into the extracellular compartment that are either active mono-ARTs (hARTC1, hARTC5) or inactive proteins (hARTC3, hARTC4). The human ARTD enzyme family consists of 17 multidomain proteins that can be divided on the basis of their catalytic activity into polymerases (ARTD1–6), mono-ART (ARTD7–17), and the inactive ARTD13. In recent years, ADP-ribosylation was intensively studied, and research was dominated by studies focusing on the role of this modification and its implication on various cellular processes. The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the ARTC enzymes. In the following sections, we will report the mono-ADP-ribosylation reactions that are catalysed by the active ARTC enzymes, with a particular focus on hARTC1 that recently has been intensively studied with the discovery of new targets and functions.

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