Targeting poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase to draw apoptosis codes in cancer

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Graphical abstractPoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a unique post-translational modification of proteins. The metabolism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is tightly regulated mainly by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). Accumulating evidence has suggested the biological functions of PAR metabolism in control of many cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death by remodeling chromatin structure and regulation of DNA transaction, including DNA repair, replication, recombination and transcription. However, the physiological roles of the catabolism of PAR catalyzed by PARG remain less understood than those of PAR synthesis by PARP. Noteworthy biochemical studies have revealed the importance of PAR catabolic pathway generating nuclear ATP via the coordinated actions of PARG and ADP-ribose pyrophosphorylase (ADPRPPL) for the driving of DNA repair and the maintenance of DNA replication apparatus while repairing DNA damage. Furthermore, genetic studies have shown the value of PARG as a therapeutic molecular target for PAR-mediated diseases, such as cancer, inflammation and many pathological conditions. In this review, we present the current knowledge of de-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation catalyzed by PARG focusing on its role in DNA repair, replication and apoptosis. Furthermore, the induction of apoptosis code of DNA replication catastrophe by synthetic lethality of PARG inhibition and the recent progresses regarding the development of small molecule PARG inhibitors and their therapeutic potentials in cancer chemotherapy are highlighted in this review.

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