Molecular markers have proved their efficiency for the identification of duplicate accessions in genetic resources collections. Partners of the GENRES Carrot project decided to evaluate the use of molecular markers for the identification of carrot accession duplicates. As a model analysis, 21 presumed duplicate accessions of ‘Jaune du Doubs’ were selected. Only accessions that were not distinguished on a morphological basis were subjected to molecular analysis. The crucial question was to determine the threshold required to declare whether accessions were duplicates or not. We used a strategy based on the comparison between intravarietal and intervarietal genetic distances. DNA extractions were made on 4–8 bulks of five individuals per accession, and the bulks were analysed using 75 AFLP markers. An additional set of 7 bulks was extracted from one accession to provide true control replicates. With the exception of the true duplicates, all the accessions were clearly differentiated. Based on these results, a general strategy for the identification of carrot duplicates is proposed.