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This paper summarises the experience accumulated during the field application of biopreparation ‘Rhoder’ (solely or in a combination with preliminary mechanical collection of free oil) for remediation of oil polluted aquatic systems and soils in the Moscow region and Western Siberia during 1994–1999. It was demonstrated that ‘Rhoder’ had a very high efficiency (>99%) for bioremediation of the open aquatic surfaces (100 m2 bay of the River Chernaya, two 5,000 m2 lakes in Vyngayakha) at initial level of oil pollution of 0.4–19.1 g/l. During remediation of the wetland (2,000 m2) in Urai (initial level of oil pollution of 10.5 g/l), a preliminary mechanical collection of oil was applied (75% removal) followed by a triple treatment with ‘Rhoder’. It resulted in an overall treatment efficiency of 94%. Relatively inferior results of bioremediation of the 10,000 m2 wetland in Vyngayakha (65% removal) and the 1,000 m2 marshy peat soil in Nizhnevartovsk (19% removal) can be attributed to the very high initial level of oil pollution (24.3 g/l and >750 g/g dry matter, respectively) aggravated by the fact that it was impossible to apply a preliminary mechanical collection of oil on these sites. A possible strategy for remediation of such heavily polluted sitesis discussed.