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Top-down procedures for diagnosing and treating conditions such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are, simply stated, logically flawed. The symptoms that form the basis for the diagnosis can be caused by myriad of other factors unrelated to bona fide (i.e., neurologically based) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The diagnostic power of the clinically normed, bottom-up electroencephalographic assessment is remarkable and facilitates treatment of the actual causes, neurological and experiential, of children's challenges. Neurotherapeutic treatments of these conditions are often suboptimal because symptom-based protocols are often inaccurate leading to treating the wrong disorder, not the least of which is trying to mollify normal children's behavior.