SChloro: directingViridiplantaeproteins to six chloroplastic sub-compartments

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Chloroplasts are organelles found in plants and involved in several important cell processes. Similarly to other compartments in the cell, chloroplasts have an internal structure comprising several sub-compartments, where different proteins are targeted to perform their functions. Given the relation between protein function and localization, the availability of effective computational tools to predict protein sub-organelle localizations is crucial for large-scale functional studies.


In this paper we present SChloro, a novel machine-learning approach to predict protein sub-chloroplastic localization, based on targeting signal detection and membrane protein information. The proposed approach performs multi-label predictions discriminating six chloroplastic sub-compartments that include inner membrane, outer membrane, stroma, thylakoid lumen, plastoglobule and thylakoid membrane. In comparative benchmarks, the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art methods in both single- and multi-compartment predictions, with an overall multi-label accuracy of 74%. The results demonstrate the relevance of the approach that is eligible as a good candidate for integration into more general large-scale annotation pipelines of protein subcellular localization.

Availability and Implementation:

The method is available as web server at


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