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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplemental antioxidant vitamins and minerals on lipid peroxidation and on the antioxidant systems in rabbits exposed to X-rays. The rabbits were divided into two experimental groups and one control group, each group containing seven rabbits. The first group (VG) received daily oral doses of vitamin E (460 mg/kg live weight) and vitamin C (100 mg/kg live weight). The second group (MG) was fed a mineral-enriched diet that contained 60 mg manganese chloride, 40 mg zinc sulfate, and 5 mg copper sulfate per kilogram of feed. The third group served as controls and received only a standard diet. Blood samples were obtained before and after the supplementation with vitamins or minerals, as well as before and after irradiation with a total dose of 550-rad X-rays. The blood samples were analyzed for their content of malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma vitamins C and E, retinol, reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx). After irradiation, the control group showed increased levels of MDA and activity of GPx (p<0.05), whereas the levels of GSH, vitamin C, and vitamin E were decreased. In the VG, the concentration of MDA was lower (p<0.05), and the concentration of GSH and vitamins C and E were higher (p<0.05) when compared to controls. In the MG, the concentrations of MDA, GSH, vitamin C, and retinol were not affected by the mineral administration and radiation. The level of vitamin E in the MG increased with mineral administration (p<0.05), but decreased after irradiation (p<0.05). For the control group, the level of GSH was higher than in the two experimental groups. After irradiation, the VG animals had vitamin E and C levels that were higher than in MG and control groups (p<0.05). The activity of GPx was not affected by vitamin or mineral supplementation or by irradiation. We conclude that the supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals may serve to reinforce the antioxidant systems, thus having a protective effect against cell damage by X-rays.